As a result of the China–Australia Free Trade Agreement (ChAFTA), 92.9 per cent of China’s imports of resource, energy and manufacturing products from Australia will enter China duty-free, with 99.9 per cent entering duty-free upon full implementation of ChAFTA in around four years’ time.

Exporters can enjoy greater certainty under the new agreement by locking-in zero tariffs on major resources and energy products, including crude petroleum oils and liquefied natural gas.

Accounting for the impact of tariff reductions on sensitive industries, the 5 per cent tariff on products such as steel will be...